Small portions of tougher and protruding skin known as hyperkeratosis can be formed on toes in response to mechanical stimulus, such as the excessive constriction of footwear or postural defects. Tough calluses are created on the top, on the tips and on the sides of the toes and have an introverted core that presses on the nerve endings, causing severe pain. Soft calluses are formed between the toes where they can remain soft due to the heat and higher humidity.
Another annoying problem is the hallux valgus, a deformity of the big toe that leads to a lateral deviation of the phalanx; it is typically accompanied by a painful swelling known as the "onion", which is none other than a form of bursitis, that is, an inflammation caused by rubbing against footwear.
Thickened skin is usually yellowish in color and is formed on the ball of the foot and on the back of the heel, caused by continuous stress and pressure in a certain place. They have a larger surface area than that of callouses but are less deep. That's why they tend to cause a widespread burning feeling rather than an acute pain caused by calluses. Plantar warts appear on the sole of the foot or on their sides. They are caused by the papilloma virus, also known as HPV; they are highly contagious and spread very quickly. Showers and/or swimming pools are often a breeding ground for this type of wart.
From a skin point of view, cracked heels are a fairly common disorder. Cracked heels are real fissures, annoying nicks that are generally caused by physical stress. If, in addition to excessive pressure or feet against the shoe, there is also particularly dry skin, dry and calloused, heels tend to crack very easily. When cracked heels do not receive the necessary care and attention through the constant application of moisturizers and nutrients, these bothersome dry cracks tend to tear and bleed. Cracked heels should not be overlooked because open cracks can become infected, creating pain, difficulty in supporting the foot and walking defects.
The instep is convex and muscles, vessels and nerves can be found just under the skin. The skin of the instep is usually thin and easily prone to cracking and excessive rubbing especially if unsuitable footwear is used. It’s very important to keep the skin of the feet hydrated and clean with daily washing to counteract the proliferation of bacteria and fungus that can cause discomfort like bad odour. For a proper cleaning of the feet, it’s preferable to rub a cloth or sponge pad to remove dead skin whilst washing, also remembering the space between the toes.
If you are seated several hours at your desk for work, or if you have to remain standing for a long time, you will have the sensation of tired, heavy legs in the evening. Amongst the causes of swelling and heaviness of the lower body is the non-optimal functioning of the veins. In this regard, it is recommendable to avoid anything that may hinder it. During the day, walking, swimming and cycling are recommended activities to improve blood circulation; at night, it is preferable to sleep with your legs slightly raised.